Sacrum


Sacrum bone is formed by the fusion of –


A. Two sacral vertebrae

B. Three sacral vertebrae

C. Five sacral vertebrae

D. Six sacral vertebrae



Upper surface of the body of the first sacral vertebra slopes forward at an angle of about


A. 5°

B. 10°

C. 15°

D. 30°



All of the following are Structures Emerging through Sacral Hiatus EXCEPT –


A. Lumbosacral trunk.

B. Fifth sacral nerve

C. Coccygeal nerve

D. Filum terminale



Ala of sacrum is related to following structures EXCEPT –


A. Sympathetic chain

B. Lumbosacral trunk

C. Pudendal nerve

D. Iliolumbar artery



Obturator nerve arises from the


A. Anterior division of the L2–L4 nerve roots

B. Posterior division of the L2–L4 nerve roots

C. Anterior division of the S2–S4 nerve roots

D. Posterior division of the S2–S4 nerve roots



What is the normal ‘Sacral base angle’?


A. 30 Degree

B. 45 Degree

C. 60 Degree

D. 120 Degree



In shorts


SACRAL INDEX


Sacral index: ratio between the length and breadth of the sacrum

SACRAL INDEX = Breadth × 100/Length.


Sacral index is higher in females than males.

Average sacral index

  1. Female – 116
  2. Male it – 112

Sacral base angle

sacral base angle is formed by measuring the intersection of a line drawn along the base of the sacrum and a horizontal line.

(A): In the sagittal plane, measurement of the angle of the sacral base (sacral angle) relative to horizontal (Nl< 41 deg.). (B and C): Measurement of the position of load of the lumbar spine relative to the sacral base (ideally passes thru the anterior 1/3rd of the sacral base). (D): The therapeutic posture

Why and how to optimize posture – Scientific Figure on ResearchGate. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/A-In-the-sagittal-plane-measurement-of-the-angle-of-the-sacral-base-sacral-angle_fig8_288152086 [accessed 21 Dec, 2022]


Lumbar lordosis


  1. Type 1 lordosis. The sacral slope is less than 35°; the apex of the lordosis is centered in the middle of the L5 body
  2. Type 2 lordosis. The sacral slope is less than 35°; the apex of the lordosis is located at the base of the L4 body
  3. Type 3 lordosis. The sacral slope is between 35° and 45°; the apex of the lumbar lordosis is in the centre of the L4 body
  4. Type 4 lordosis. The sacral slope is greater than 45°; the apex of the lordosis is located at the base of the L3 vertebra or higher

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