Evaluation of Patients

Claudication usually indicate –

A. Neurogenic disorder

B. Radiculopathy

C. Vascular disorder

D. Psychological disorder

Typical angina should satisfy ALL of the following characteristics EXCEPT –

A. Substernal discomfort

B. Initiated by exertion or stress

C. Relieved with rest or sublingual nitroglycerin

D. Associated diaphoresis

Typical angina should satisfy three characteristics:

(1) substernal discomfort,

(2) initiated by exertion or stress,

(3) relieved with rest or sublingual nitroglycerin.

Atypical angina –

Chest discomfort with two of these three criteria is considered atypical angina

Which of the following associated symptom has highest positive predictive value for chest pain in Diagnosing Acute Coronary Syndrome –

A. Radiation to both arms

B. Worse with exertion

C. Radiation to neck or jaw

D. Recent episode of similar pain

Which of the following is the term explains dyspnea on standing –

A. Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea

B. Orthopnea

C. Trepopnea

D. Platypnea

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea of cardiac origin usually occurs ——– hours after onset of sleep –

A. 2 to 4

B. 4 to 6

C. 6 to 8

D. 8 to 10

Which of the following condition commonly shows ‘Frog sign’?

A. Atrial fibrillation

B. Atrial Flutter



What is the mechanism of ‘Frog Sign’ in AVNRT?

  • Atrioventricular nodal tachycardia -ventricles and atria are activated simultaneously at a rate of 160 to 180 beats/min.
  • This dissociation causes the atria to contract against closed mitral and tricuspid valves.
  • When atria contract against closed mitral and tricuspid valves it produces rapid and regular pounding in the neck.
  • This is termed the frog sign.

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