Hypertrophy of muscle


Most common stimulus for hypertrophy of muscle is –


A. Hormonal stimulus

B. Neurogenic stimulus

C. Increased workload

D. Repeated contraction



Uterine hypertrophy is stimulated by –


A. Estrogen

B. Progesterone

C. Prolactin

D. Oxytocin



Which biochemical signaling pathway is most important in physiologic or exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy –


A. Protein kinase signaling

B. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT

C. Signaling downstream of G-protein–coupled receptors

D. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling



All of the following are TRUE for pathological changes in Cardiac Hypertrophy EXCEPT –


A. α isoform of myosin heavy chain is replaced by the β isoform,

B. β isoform is faster in contraction

C. β isoform causes energetically economical contraction

D. β isoform is a fetal form



Concentric hypertrophy is a result of –


A. Pressure overload and addition of sarcomeres in Series

B. Volume overload and addition of sarcomeres in Parallel

C. Pressure overload and addition of sarcomeres in Parallel

D. Volume overload and addition of sarcomeres in Series



Extra-Points


There are two isoforms of myosin found in the human heart commonly referred to α- and β-cardiac myosin

Human heart – α-myosin predominates in the atria and β-myosin predominates in the ventricles,


Gene that encodes the human CFTR protein is found on-


A. chromosome 3

B. chromosome 5

C. chromosome 7

D chromosome 9



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