Bruch’s membrane


Which is the outermost layer of choroid?


A. Haller’s layer

B. Sattler’s layer

C. Choriocapillaris

D. Bruch’s membrane



What are the layers in Structure of the choroid?

Structure of the choroid has four layers-


  1. Haller’s layer – outermost layer of the choroid consisting of larger diameter blood vessels
  2. Sattler’s layer – layer of medium diameter blood vessels
  3. Choriocapillaris – layer of capillaries
  4. Bruch’s membrane – innermost layer of the choroid

Retinal pigment epithelium transports metabolic waste from the photoreceptors across Bruch’s membrane to the choroid.


Dot-and-fleck retinopathy is seen in


A. Behcet’s syndrome

B. Downs Syndrome

C. Alport syndrome

D. Dry eye syndrome



Alport syndrome


  • Caused by an inherited defect in type IV collagen
  • Structural material that is needed for the normal function of different parts of the body – found in the ears, eyes, and kidneys

Alport syndrome is a triad of –


  • progressive renal failure,
  • hearing loss
  • ocular abnormalities.

The absence of type IV collagen affects the basement membrane of cornea, lens capsule, and retina in the eye.


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