Nephrology MCQs-3

Most common primary inherited aminoaciduria-

A. Cystinuria

B. Lysinuric protein intolerance

C. Hyperdibasic aminoaciduria

D. Isolated lysinuria

Most common cause of autosomal recessive proximal renal tubular acidosis

A. Amyloidosis

B. Defects in NBCe1-A

C. Lowe syndrome

D. Immaturity of NHE-3

Most common cause of acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

A. Lithium

B. Hypercalcaemia

C. Hypokalemia

D. Pyelonephritis

Most common causes of pseudohyponatremia

A. Light chain disease

B. Myelodysplastic syndromes

C. Hyperlipidemia

D. Heavy chain disease

Most frequent electrolyte disorders

A. Hypokalemia

B. Hypochloremia

C. Hypernatremia

D. Hyponatremia

Hyperphosphatemia is seen in

A. Vitamin D deficiency

B. Chronic kidney disease

C. Hyperparathyroidism

D. Refeeding syndrome

Hypokalemia seen in

A. Insulin deficiency

B. Metabolic acidosis

C. Hyperaldosteronism

D. Acute kidney disease


What is the mechanism of Lithium induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus?

Long-term lithium use can damage the cells of the kidneys so they no longer respond to AVP.

Lithium – interfere with the production of cAMP

Produces a dramatic reduction AQP2 levels in kidney

Most common cause of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is-

Bipolar patients treated with lithium, which results in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in approximately 20% of treated patients

Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus are very rare

Hereditary cause -Genes involved AVPR2 and AQP2

What is Pseudohyponatremia?

Pseudohyponatremia is defined by a serum sodium concentration of less than 135 mEq/L in the setting of a normal serum osmolality (280 to 300 mOsm/kg).

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