Endocrinology in Relation to Reproduction


Corpus luteum of pregnancy secretes all except


A. 17a-hydroxyprogesterone
B. Relaxin
C. Androstenedione
D. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)



Which cell organelle is abundantly present in syncytiotrophoblast


A. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
B. Nucleoli
C. Cytoplasmic vacuoles
D. Plastids



Which hormone is not secreted by cytotrophoblast


A. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
B. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
C. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
D. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)



High levels of HCG is found in all except


A. Multiple pregnancy
B. Hydatidiform mole
C. Ectopic pregnancy
D. Trisomy 21 fetus



Not true of placental hormones


A. There is a slight secondary peak of HCG at 32 weeks
B. The plasma concentration of hPL is proportional to placental mass
C. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) acts as an immunosuppressant in pregnancy
D. Low values of progesterone are observed in Rh-isoimmunization



Development of lobuloalveolar system depends on


A. Estrogen and HPL
B. HPL & Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
C. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) & Progesterone
D. Estrogen and Progesterone



In short


  • The placenta produces progesterone independently from cholesterol precursors, and estrogen in concert with the fetal adrenal gland. By the end of the first trimester, the placenta produces enough of these steroids to maintain the pregnancy and the corpus luteum is no longer needed.
  • Human placental lactogen (hPL) or human chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS) is similar to growth hormone and influences growth, maternal mammary duct proliferation, and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.
  • Human placental growth hormone differs from pituitary growth hormone (GH) by 13 amino acids. From 15 weeks until the end of pregnancy, this hormone gradually replaces maternal pituitary GH. Its major function is the regulation of maternal blood glucose levels so that the fetus is ensured of an adequate nutrient supply.
  • Placental microvascular endothelial cells exhibit remarkable changes of their angiogenic status throughout pregnancy. It has dominant angiogenic activity and is associated with rapid placental expansion during the first and second trimesters, followed by a dominant angiostatic condition that is associated with placental growth arrest when pregnancy approaches to term.

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