All are true of carbohydrate metabolism in pregnancy except
A. Insulin secretion is increased
B. There is increased tissue resistance to insulin
C. HPL reduces insulin secretion
D. Placental glucose uptake increases with advancing gestation
Not true of physiological changes in pregnancy
A. Plasma glucagon level remains unchanged
B. The blood urea level falls
C. Glomerular filtration of glucose is increased
D. HDL level decreases
Not True of Iron metabolism in pregnancy
A. RBC life span decreases
B. Erythropoietin levels increase
C. Hepcidin concentration increases throughout normal pregnancy
D. The main source of placental iron is maternal holo-transferrin
Pregnancy is an inevitable state of
B. Iron rich
All are correct about protein metabolism in pregnancy except
B. Blood uric acid is unchanged
C. Diminished amino acid response to protein intake
D. There is an excess of maternal nitrogen
Which of the following is not true of pregnancy
A. Fetal amino acid concentration are generally higher than in maternal
B. Glycerol kinase enzyme is least active
C. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D increase
D. Total maternal serum calcium increases
- Maternal calcitonin levels have been reported to be increased in early pregnancy. A rise in calcitonin may protect the maternal skeleton against PTH-induced resorption.
- Physiological hypercalciuria occurs during pregnancy as a result of increased maternal calcium absorption.
- The blood urea level falls to 15–20 mg% in pregnancy, Blood uric acid and creatinine level, however, either remain unchanged or fall slightly.
- Plasma insulin level is increased due to a number of contra insulin factors. These are: estrogen, progesterone, human placental lactogen (hPL), cortisol, prolactin, free fatty acids, leptin, and TNFa.