Klotho is a transmembrane protein that provides some control over the sensitivity of the organism to insulin and appears to be involved in ageing
α-klotho is highly expressed in the brain, liver and kidney.
β-klotho is predominantly expressed in the liver.
γ-klotho is expressed in the skin.
|klotho||Highly expressed in|
|1||α-klotho||brain, liver and kidney.|
What are the forms in which klotho exist?
Klotho can exist in a membrane-bound form or a (hormonal) soluble, circulating form.
Proteases can convert the membrane-bound form into the circulating form
What is the ‘α-klotho’ gene location?
α-klotho gene is located on chromosome 13
What is the Clinical significance of Klotho?
α-klotho can suppress oxidative stress and inflammation, thereby reducing endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.
Blood plasma α-klotho is increased by aerobic exercise, thereby reducing endothelial dysfunction
Klotho and Ageing
Plasma (soluble) form of α-klotho is most easily measured, and has been shown to decrease after 40 years of age in humans.
Lower plasma levels of α-klotho in older adults is associated with increased frailty and all-cause mortality.
Physical activity has been shown to increase plasma α-klotho