Klotho is a transmembrane protein that provides some control over the sensitivity of the organism to insulin and appears to be involved in ageing

α-klotho is highly expressed in the brain, liver and kidney.

β-klotho is predominantly expressed in the liver.

γ-klotho is expressed in the skin.

klothoHighly expressed in
1α-klothobrain, liver and kidney.

What are the forms in which klotho exist?

Klotho can exist in a membrane-bound form or a (hormonal) soluble, circulating form.

Proteases can convert the membrane-bound form into the circulating form

What is the ‘α-klotho’ gene location?

α-klotho gene is located on chromosome 13

What is the Clinical significance of Klotho?

α-klotho can suppress oxidative stress and inflammation, thereby reducing endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.

Blood plasma α-klotho is increased by aerobic exercise, thereby reducing endothelial dysfunction

Klotho and Ageing

Plasma (soluble) form of α-klotho is most easily measured, and has been shown to decrease after 40 years of age in humans.

Lower plasma levels of α-klotho in older adults is associated with increased frailty and all-cause mortality.

Physical activity has been shown to increase plasma α-klotho

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