Cardiology MCQs-1

In Pericardial tamponade most common associated symptom is

A. Hypotension

B. Dyspnea

C. Palpitation

D. Chest pain

Which of the following predicts tamponade with highest sensitivity and specificity?

A. Hypotension

B. Dyspnea

C. Muffled heart sounds

D. Pulsus paradoxus

Classic condition causing slow y descent is

A. Mitral stenosis

B. Tricuspid stenosis

C. Constrictive pericarditis

D. Severe tricuspid regurgitation

Beck’s triad is a collection of three classic clinical signs associated with

A. Aortic Regurgitation

B. Constrictive pericarditis

C. Cardiac tamponade


Kussmaul Sign seen in

A. Pericardial tamponade

B. Constrictive pericarditis

C. Right-sided heart infarction

D. All of the above

Kussmaul Sign

Kussmaul sign is most commonly defined as an inspiratory increase in central venous (or right atrial) pressure.

Normally, venous pressure falls as intrathoracic pressure falls during spontaneous inspiration.

Inability of the pressure to fall denotes restricted filling of the right side of the heart due to either pericardial compressive states or intrinsic stiffness of the right ventricle (infarction, hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy).

Another less commonly used definition for Kussmaul sign is a failure of the central venous pressure to fall with inspiration.

Kussmaul Sign causes

Kussmaul sign was first described in patients with constrictive pericarditis, but it is seen in only a minority (20%) of cases of constrictive pericarditis.

The sign may be seen in

  1. Pericardial tamponade
  2. Restrictive cardiomyopathy
  3. Virtually any cause or nature of right ventricular failure
  4. Constrictive pericarditis
  5. Right-sided heart failure
  6. Right-sided heart infarction
  7. Tricuspid stenosis
  8. Massive pulmonary embolism.

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