Neurology Notes


Most common cause of arrhythmic cardiac syncope


Atrioventricular block


Most common arrhythmias causing syncope


AV block


Most common congenital malformation causing syncope


Tetralogy of Fallot


Most common symptom of colloid cysts of the third ventricle


Position-induced headaches

Unprovoked falling – second most common symptom


Most common behavioral disorder in a medical-surgical setting


Delirium


Most common cause of delirium in elderly


Metabolic disturbances,


Most common cause of delirium in young individuals


Drug abuse and alcohol withdrawal


Most common causes of decreased respiratory rate


Metabolic or toxic, such as carbon dioxide narcosis or drug overdose with central nervous system (CNS) depressants.


Most common source of underlying infection in brain abscess


Infections of the middle ear, mastoid, and paranasal sinuses


Ocular bobbing


Ocular bobbing – rapid downward jerks of both eyes are observed, followed by a slow
return to the midposition.


Typical Ocular bobbing


Typical Ocular bobbing – there is associated paralysis of both reflex and spontaneous horizontal eye
movements.

Typical ocular bobbing is specific but not pathognomonic for acute pontine lesions.


Atypical ocular bobbing


Occurs with anoxia

It is nonlocalizing


Inverse ocular bobbing – Ocular dipping


Spontaneous eye movements in which an initial slow downward phase is followed by a relatively rapid return.

Reflex horizontal eye movements are preserved. It usually is associated with diffuse cerebral damage.


Reverse ocular bobbing –


slow initial downward phase, followed by a rapid return that carries the eyes past the midposition into full upward gaze. Then the eyes slowly return to the midposition


NINDS-AIREN diagnostic criteria is used for

vascular dementia


What is the most common psychiatric disturbance in persons with Parkinson Disease?


Depression


What is the most common behavioral symptom in Multiple Sclerosis?


Depression


Most common neuropsychiatric outcomes of stroke


Depression


Anosognosia


It is a neurological condition in which the patient is unaware of their neurological deficit or psychiatric condition.


Which circuits are most commonly implicated in neuropsychiatric symptoms?


Limbic system and the frontosubcortical circuits


Which is the most common human prion disease?


Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease


Most common sign of vitamin B12 deficiency is –


macrocytic anemia


What is the triad of Porphyric attacks ?


  • Abdominal pain
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Neuropsychiatric symptoms.

Most common primary malignancies that promote neurological paraneoplastic syndromes are


Ovarian cancer and Small-cell lung cancer


Most common intracranial primary tumors are


Astrocytomas (e.g., glioblastoma multiforme)


Postictal psychosis is most commonly associated with


Temporal lobe epilepsy.


What is the most common site of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage?


Putamen


What is the most common form of motor neuron disease?


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis


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