Heart Failure -I
What is the commonest cause of heart failure?
Ischaemic heart disease - 35–40%
Cardiomyopathy (dilated) - 30–34% Hypertension - 15–20%
Weight loss of 4.5 kg in ............ days in response to treatment is a Framingham major criteria.
The Framingham criteria for the diagnosis of heart failure consists of the concurrent presence of either two major criteria or one major and two minor criteria.
Major criteria comprise the following:
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
Weight loss of 4.5 kg in 5 days in response to treatment
Neck vein distention
Acute pulmonary edema
S 3 gallop
Central venous pressure greater than 16 cm water
Circulation time of 25 seconds or longer
Pulmonary edema, visceral congestion, or cardiomegaly at autopsy
Minor criteria (accepted only if they cannot be attributed to another medical condition) are as follows:
Dyspnea on ordinary exertion
A decrease in vital capacity by one third the maximal value recorded
Tachycardia (rate of 120 bpm)
Bilateral ankle edema
Licorice can worsen heart failure by -
Licorice can worsen heart failure by increasing blood pressure and promoting fluid retention.
Yohimbine can exacerbate heart failure by increasing blood pressure through -
Yohimbine can exacerbate heart failure by increasing blood pressure through alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonism
Which of the following stages of heart failure the patient belongs to when the patient has structural heart disorder, but no symptoms at any stage?
Stage A: People at high risk for developing HF in the future, but no functional or structural heart disorder Stage B: A structural heart disorder, but no symptoms at any stage Stage C: Previous or current symptoms of heart failure in the context of an underlying structural heart problem, but managed with medical treatment Stage D: Advanced disease requiring hospital-based support, a heart transplant, or palliative care
Heart failure cells are -
Heart failure cells are siderophages generated in the alveoli of the lungs of people with left heart failure or chronic pulmonary edema
Patients who achieve at least............. MET-minutes/week had lower heart failure
Recommended minimum by U.S. guidelines -
Patients who achieve at least 500 MET-minutes/week had lower heart failure
Which of the following should be used in those patients who still have symptoms while on an ACE-I or ARB, beta blocker, and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist?
Sacubitril/valsartan should be used in those who still have symptoms while on an ACE-I or ARB, beta blocker, and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist as it reduces the risks of cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization for heart failure by a further 4.7% (absolute risk reduction).
All of the following is used for risk Stratification in heart failure EXCEPT?
Framingham criteria for the diagnosis of heart failure
Tolvaptan antagonises which of the following receptor?
Unselective (mixed V1A/V2)
V1A selective (V1RA)
V1B selective (V3RA)
V2 selective (V2RA)
Atrial ﬁbrillation occurs in approximately ------------% of patients with heart failure.
Atrial ﬁbrillation occurs in approximately 20% of patients with heart failure and causes further impairment of cardiac function