Abnormalities of placenta and cord

Not true of placental anomalies is

A. In vitro fertilization is a risk factor for the succenturiate placenta
B. Velamentous insertion of cord is associated with placenta duplex
C. Vaginal delivery is not an option for those with low-lying placentas
D. Circumvallate placenta is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes

All are true of placenta accreta except

A. Risk of Placenta Accreta with three previous Cesarean sections is 40%
B. Ultrasound features suggestive of placenta accreta include continuity of the bladder line
C. MRI does not appreciably improve the diagnostic accuracy when compared to ultrasonography
D. Highest risk for a placenta accreta is in pregnancies with a history of a cesarean section and a current placenta previa.

Which of the following anomaly can cause first trimester bleeding

A. Circumvallate placenta
B. Placenta membranacea
C. Placenta fenestrata
D. Battledore placenta

Incidence of a low‐lying placenta is increased by all of the following except

A. Smoking
C. Endometriosis
D. Oligohydramnios

The “rail sign” in ultrasound is related with an increased risk of

A. Placenta previa
B. Battledore placenta
C. Placenta increta
D. Placenta supuria

‘Grape-like’ placental appearance in ultrasonography is a feature of

A. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia
B. Chorioangioma
C. Subchorionic cysts
D. Vasa Praevia

In shorts

“whirlpool” sign

  • A “whirlpool” sign in color Doppler ultrasound and three-dimensional ultrasound is seen in multiple loops of nuchal cord.

“tire sign”

  • The “tire sign” may be a useful clinical marker of circumvallate placenta when using 3D ultrasound.

  • As a uterine scar is rich in collagen, the trophoblast can adhere to the uterine scar, leading to a placenta previa or low‐lying placenta. Because there is no blood flow in a cesarean scar, the scar tends to be hypoxic, but since hypoxia stimulates trophoblast cells to proliferate, the early embryo can still develop here. 

  • The anterior lower uterine segment is usually much thinner and consequently has less blood supply than the anterior uterine body. This results in an upward migration of the placenta. However, the posterior lower uterine segment is usually less thin compared with the posterior body, resulting in little or no migration.

  • The risk of having a retained placenta is increased in women with a previous cesarean delivery.

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