Hydrocephalus


The main site of CSF absorption are arachnoid granulations of


A. Superior sagittal

B. Inferior sagittal

C. Transverse

D. Cavernous



All are true of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension except


A. Typically seen in young, overweight women

B. Can progress rapidly to blindness

C. Ventricular enlargement in CT is an initial finding

D. Otherwise called pseudotumour cerebri



Not true of the classic Hakim triad


A. Classic gait impairment consists of a wide-based gait
B. Dementia
C. Papilloedema
D. Urinary incontinence



All are true of Parinaud syndrome except


A. Downward gaze palsy
B. Convergence retraction nystagmus
C. Light-near dissociation
D. Bilateral lid retraction



Mickey Mouse” sign in computed tomographic (CT) is due to


A. Periventricular hypoattenuation
B. Damage to pretectal nucleus
C. Aqueductal obstruction
D. CSF extravasation



Most common shunt used to treat hydrocephalus is


A. External ventricular drain
B. Ventriculo-pleural shunt
C. Ventriculoatrial shunt (VA) shunt
D. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt



In short


Lumboperitoneal shunt


  • A lumboperitoneal shunt is considered in cases of pseudotumor cerebri.

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy


  • Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is commonly used in cases of aqueductal stenosis to prevent a permanent shunt.

Choroid plexus coagulation


  • Choroid plexus coagulation can be used for cases of over-production of CSF. Repeat lumbar punctures can be done in cases of communicating hydrocephalus if it’s considered that spontaneous resorption is likely to occur.

External ventricular drain


  • Acute hydrocephalus is a medical emergency, placement of external ventricular drain is the most common procedure performed in these cases.

Serial fontanelle taps


  • Premature infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus may improve with serial fontanelle taps.

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