Spasticity and Rigidity

What is Spasticity?

  1. Increased tone of muscles called as spasticity
  2. Spasticity – Resistance determined by the angle and velocity of motion
  3. This is due to cortico-spinal tract disease

What is Rigidity?

  1. Rigidity – similar resistance in all angles of motion
  2. Suggests – extra- pyramidal disease

What is paratonia ?

  1. Fluctuating Hypertonia
  2. Hypertonia that changes with resistance
  3. Form of hypertonia with an involuntary variable resistance during passive movement
  4. May have Frontal lobe pathways dysfunction or normal
  5. Paratonia- alteration of tone to passive movement,
  6. Types of paratonia – divided into oppositional paratonia (“gegenhalten,” “paratonic rigidity”) and facilitory paratonia.

What is Cogwheel rigidity?

  • Passive motion elicits jerky interruptions in resistance
  • This is seen in parkinsonism.

What is Gegenhalten?

Paratonia is the inability to relax muscles during muscle tone assessment.
There are two types of paratonia:

  1. Oppositional Paratonia
  2. Facilitatory Paratonia
  • Oppositional paratonia – “gegenhalten” – occurs when subjects involuntarily resist to passive movements,
  • Facilitatory paratonia – “mitgehen” – occurs when subjects involuntary assist passive movements
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