Gallavardin phenomenon

Gallavardin phenomenon is seen in

A. Mitral valve stenosis

B. Mitral insufficiency

C. Aortic valve stenosis

D. Aortic insufficiency

In Gallavardin phenomenon selective high-frequency components radiate to the

A. Cardiac Apex

B. Axilla

C. Right Carotids

D. Base of heart

In Aortic valve stenosis musical high frequency component is best heard at

A. Carotid artery

B. Cardiac apex

C. Left sternal border

D. Right second space

Most common cause of aortic valve disease in developed countries

A. Rheumatic aortic stenosis

B. Calcific aortic stenosis

C. Rheumatic aortic regurgitation

D. Calcific aortic regurgitation

All of the following Signs suggest severe aortic stenosis EXCEPT:

A. Early peaking systolic murmur

B. Single second heart sound or paradoxical splitting

C. S2 sound is no longer audible

D. High-pitched midsystolic ejection murmur

How to differentiate between Aortic Stenosis murmur and Mitral regurgitation murmur at apex?

Aortic Stenosis murmur -Apical murmur of the Gallavardin phenomenon

  1. Does not radiate to the left axilla
  2. Accentuated by a slowing of the heart rate (such as a compensatory pause after a premature beat)

whereas the mitral regurgitation murmur does not change.

Murmur of mitral regurgitation

Handgrip exercises or transient arterial occlusion increases afterload and will increase the murmur of mitral regurgitation

while not changing that of aortic stenosis.

‘Cooing’ murmur

Typical ‘cooing’ murmur – patients aged 60 years of age or older

– not common

– highly specific

‘Seagull’ sound

‘Cooing’ murmur – Remarkably similar to the chirping sound of the swallow bird and is described as ‘musical’ or ‘seagull’ sound

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