Gait disturbances

Gait disturbancesGaitCause Of GaitCause
1Antalgic Gaitpain
2Vaulting gaitcommon in children with limb length discrepancypelvic droop, decreased hip, and knee flexion, ankle plantar-flexionshoe lift or surgery for difference longer than 2 cm; no treatment needed otherwise
3Trendelenburg gaitpelvis drops to the unaffected side.hip abductor weakness
Treatment: gluteus medius strengthening
4Posterior lurch gaitbackward trunk lean with hyperextended hip during the stance phase of the affected limbhip extensor weaknessTreatment: gluteus maximus strengthening
5Knee buckling – genu recurvatumposterior capsule locks affected knee joint, hyperextending knee by forwarding trunk leadingknee extensor weaknessTreatment: solid or hinged ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) and quadriceps strengthening
6Steppage gaitunable to heel strike causing initial contact with toes (foot drop)ankle dorsiflexion weaknessTreatment: hinged or posterior leaf spring AFO and electrical stimulator 
7Calcaneal gaitknee flexion movement with excess tibial motion over ankle during mid to late stanceankle plantar flexor weaknessTreatment: hinged or solid AFO to prevent buckling at knee
8Waddling gaittoe walking (posterior lurch and bilateral Trendelenburg)proximal muscle weaknessTreatment: low-resistant strength training, aerobic exercise
9Scissor gait (Crouched gait)Cerebral palsyprolonged neonatal hypoxia, Brain injury during birthTreatment: supportive care
10Ataxic gaitbroad-based, unsteadycerebellar syndrome (alcohol, phenytoin, stroke, tumor, degenerative, inflammatory)
11Sensory ataxic gaitstomping gait, Romberg’s test positiveVitamin B12 deficiency. The patients use visual control to compensate for the loss of proprioception
12Hemiparetic gaitgait is slow, with a broad base, knee, and hip are extended, during the swing phase, the paretic leg performs a lateral movement (circumduction)stroke, tumor, trauma, degenerative, inflammatory, vasculitis
13Festinating gait (Shuffling gait)
short stepped, hurrying, with weak arm swing, or naturally very slow (parkinsonian), in some patients with freezing and slow turningParkinson diseaseTreatment: dopamine agonist, dopamine precursors, and deep brain stimulation
14Apraxic frontal gait (Apractic or Bruns apraxia):gait ignition failure, or with walking difficultyBifrontal lesions
15Hyperkinetic gaitchorea, dystonia, Wilson disease
16Freezing gaittypically occur on turning or when approaching obstacles,
Can fall easily
Parkinson’s disease
17Myelopatic gaitspastic or stiff gait
18Propulsive gaitcenter of gravity anterior to the body
19Magnetic gaibroad-based, short-stepped, “stuck to the floor,”
20Myoclonic gaitshort-lasting, involuntary jerks
21Thalamic astasiafall backward or to the contralateral side while sitting or standingcaused by thalamic lesions or stokes
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